The real danger comes from certain bacteria called pathogens that cause food poisoning. These organisms do not produce any odor, discoloration, or other changes that you can recognize with your senses. You won`t even know they`re there until you start feeling nauseous or convulsive or whatever. Due to their high water content and often low acidity, fresh fruits and vegetables are at high risk of bacterial contamination. Be sure to wash and/or cook these foods thoroughly before serving and store them at the right temperature. The temperature danger zone, 40-140°F, indicates the temperatures at which bacteria grow and multiply rapidly. Food should not be stored in this area for more than 2 hours before being properly heated or cooled to the correct cooking or storage temperatures. Bacteria do not grow well under acidic conditions, which is why it is important to properly store low-acid foods (many vegetables, fruits, cereals, etc.). Use a meat thermometer (which can be purchased at many stores, including grocery stores) to check the temperature of the meat before serving. “Cooking until the juices are clear” is not enough to protect against foodborne illness.
FAT TOM is an acronym for food, acid, time, temperature, oxygen and humidity. These are the six conditions under which foodborne pathogens must develop and spread. This acronym is great for remembering these conditions and preventing the growth of foodborne pathogens that can cause foodborne illness. Last but not least, food refers to the fact that bacteria need to eat something, which is the food we are trying to spoil. And while fruits, vegetables, and starch are prone to bacterial deterioration, it`s protein-rich foods like meat, poultry, milk, eggs, and seafood that can harbor pathogens. These are the foods that we consider “perishable”, which means that they must be stored in the refrigerator or freezer or stored using one of the other techniques described above – pickling, smoking, canning, etc. FATTOM is an acronym used to describe the conditions of bacterial growth: food, acidity, weather, temperature, oxygen and humidity. Since you can`t see or smell these bacteria, it`s important to store and handle your food in a way that minimizes opportunities for growth. Too hot and they are cooked, which kills them. Needless to say, killing bacteria is a very effective technique to prevent them from reproducing. As a general rule, heating food to 165°F for at least 30 seconds is enough to eliminate any dangerous bacteria it might contain. Temperature is one of the key factors in bacterial growth.
Bacteria prefer a pleasant moderate temperature. Too cold and they slow down and enter a kind of suspended animation in which they do not reproduce. They are not dead, they simply do not do more of themselves. Or at least they make it much slower. Indeed, under normal circumstances, bacteria multiply very quickly. They do this by dividing themselves into two identical selves, which they can do several times an hour, as well as each new one. Thus, a single bacterium can become millions in just a few hours. Ensuring that perishable goods are not left behind for more than two hours limits the ability of bacteria to multiply. Or more precisely, pH, which is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of something. pH values are calculated on a scale of 0 to 14, with lower numbers being more acidic. Water is considered neutral with a pH of 7.
Foodborne bacteria prefer a neutral to slightly acidic pH. pH values of 4.5 or less are considered acidic and inhibit the growth of bacteria. One of the most reliable ways to preserve food is to can food, a process in which air is drawn out of the container by vapour pressure, which also closes the container. Home canning, whether done in a hot water bath or with a pressure can, uses steam to create a pressure difference inside the glass compared to the atmosphere outside the glass, which draws in air and seals tightly. So, it`s FAT TOM. Theoretically, it is enough to control one of these factors to avoid food spoilage. In practice, however, it`s a good idea to focus on two or more. For example, during canning, oxygen is removed and food is heated to kill bacteria.
It turns out that the most logical way to discuss these factors is in reverse order, but apparently there are no decent mnemonics that can be made from MOTTAF or even TMOTAF – at least not as eye-catching as FAT TOM. Let`s go through them one by one. So, what are the 5 requirements for bacterial growth? The so-called temperature danger zone, the temperature range in which most bacteria thrive, ranges from 41°F to 140°F. Your refrigerator or freezer will cool you up to 40 F and more. For hot foods, like on a buffet, you want them to stay at 140 F or warmer, which is too hot for bacteria. As long as it is heated to 165 F first, it is safe to keep food hot at 140 F. But if it dives underneath, you need to warm it up again. Temperature is important not only for storing food, but also for serving it. Raw meats, pots and pans, and eggs all have certain temperatures at which they must be cooked to kill all the bacteria naturally present in food. The four simple steps to preventing foodborne illness are clean, separate, cooked and fresh. Wash your hands and food, separate raw and ready-to-eat foods, cook food to the right temperature, and cool leftovers immediately.
If it`s an apple, onion, or loaf of bread, you don`t have to worry much. It will become bad at some point, but you can keep it at room temperature. Food can be in the temperature danger zone for 4 to 6 hours before being brought back to safe temperatures or discarded. Bacteria promote this temperature range and can thus multiply rapidly in foods that are kept in this range. This is important because it`s not just the bacteria themselves that can make you sick. In some cases, it is also the toxins they produce. You could kill the bacteria by cooking them, but these dangerous toxins will still be present. But even home cooks can learn a lot when they get to know FAT TOM. When you bring your lunch to work, be sure to check the temperature of your ice pack. It may not be cold enough to keep your food at the right temperatures to protect you from bacterial contamination. A common example of this is jerky. People preserve thin strips of meat and fish by drying them for thousands of years.
Sun drying, air drying and smoking are common techniques to remove water from food and make it inhospitable to bacteria. Barbara Almanza, PhD, RD, is Professor and Director of the HTM Program at purdue University`s School of Hospitality and Tourism Management in West Lafayette, Indiana. Previously, she was Director of the Arthur Avery Foodservice Research Laboratory at Purdue University and Professor of Nutritional and Food Sciences at South Dakota State University in Brookings, South Dakota. She is a member of several academic and professional organizations, and is certified as a health teacher with the National Restaurant Association and is certified as a registered dietitian with the American Dietetic Association. Regardless of the type, sugar provides the same amount of calories per gram. Therefore, there is no caloric difference between cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, honey or brown sugar. The book provides a comprehensive overview of up-to-date information on food safety and hygiene with practical applications of current research. The book examines and examines research and dominant applications and examines specific operational issues such as electrical or hydraulic emergencies. It also covers food safety and hygiene in various environments, such as restaurants, schools, fairs and festivals. It is multidisciplinary because it includes culinary, hospital, microbiological and operational analyses. Shrimp, lobster and crab should be cooked until the meat has a beaded and opaque appearance. Poultry, such as chicken breast, fried turkey, fried chicken and turkey burger, should be cooked at 165°F.
Quinoa, a recently announced grain found in grocery stores, contains all the essential amino acids, making it a great option for meat-free meals. Try it as a substitute for rice or pasta, or enjoy its nutty flavor with spicy fried vegetables on their own. ÐÐμÑ ÑÐ»ÐμÐºÑÑÐ3/4Ð1/2Ð1/2Ð3/4Ð¹ Ð²ÐμÑÑÐ ̧Ð ̧ ̧ ̧ ̧ If you or your family members plan to eat milk for lunch and there is no refrigeration available at work or school, it is safer to buy milk when you have lunch eaten. This ensures that the milk is at an appropriate temperature and not in the temperature risk zone. .